Kraker Medya · Similar users See full size profile picture · 42 Photos · Following · k Followers. View the profiles of professionals named Rotimi on LinkedIn. There are 3 Rotimi Johnson. Family Resources at Cracker Barrel Old Country Store. Location . 1, 2 Olufunmilayo Sade Omoba, 1 Victor Ndigwe Enujiugha, 1 and Rotimi Emmanuel Aluko The developed cracker biscuits were evaluated for chemical acid.

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Pigeon pea krakre treated by blanching and used to supplement acha flour for the development of functional cracker biscuits. The flour ratios for acha and pigeon pea were The developed cracker biscuits were evaluated for chemical acid compositions, antioxidant, as well as antidiabetic properties.

Protein contents of the formulated crackers increased with increase in supplementation with pigeon pea flour. The antinutrient content of the formulated snack was low hence may not adversely affect nutrient bioavailability. Glutamic and aspartic acids were the predominant amino acids while methionine and lysine significantly increased as a result of supplementation with pigeon pea flour.

The formulated snack especially Kraier possessed low glycemic index All parameters evaluated indicated that APC2 could serve as a functional snack in the management of hyperglycemia diabetes and prevention of associated degenerative diseases.

Cereals and legumes play important roles in human nutrition. Legume proteins play a vital role in complementing cereals in the production of ready to eat snacks. Studies have shown that consumption of legumes contributes several physiological and health benefits such as prevention of cardiovascular diseases, obesity, and diabetes.

Diabetes consists of a group of krakfr disorder characterized by elevated blood glucose, rretimi because insulin production is inadequate or because the body’s cells do not respond getimi, or both.

Its increasing worldwide incidence constitutes a global health burden. Therefore, maintenance of body antioxidant status is important in the retimu of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Inhibitors derived from natural products do not have side effects, and the therapies are well tolerated. Hence, the increase in the search for food derived natural inhibitors of the key enzymes.

Legumes are commonly used to supplement cereal flours rehimi they increase the nutritional composition and functionality of the resulting products. Biscuits are the largest category of snack items among baked products. Biscuits constitute the easiest means to access the entire population of a country attributable to their eating convenience, low production cost, and wide consumption pattern.

Acha Digitaria exilis is one of the indigenous grains in West Africa. Pigeon pea Cajanus cajan on the other hand is an underutilized legume rich in protein, minerals, and other phytonutrients. Ammonia, sodium metabisulfite SMBlecithin, yeast, and enzymes were obtained from a biscuit company in Lagos, Nigeria. All other reagents used were of analytical grade and purchased from renowned chemical stores in Akure, Ondo State, Nigeria, and Canada. The ratios kraaker generated from a preliminary study which ascertained the ratios were the best in terms of increased protein content, reduced antinutrient content, and overall sensory acceptability.

The cracker biscuits were produced as described by Han, Janz, and Gerlatwith slight modification.

Creaming was carried out to premix margarine, sweetner honeylecithin, and ammonia. Flour achacomposite flour and SMB were mixed together and hydrated with water. It was cut using a circularly shaped biscuit cutter, and docking was carried out to create air spaces. The moisture content hot air oven method and fat content using soxhlet extraction method were determined as described by Pearson while ash and protein were determined using AOAC methods.

The carbohydrate contents were calculated by difference. Samples were mixed with 0. The buffer was used in the blank assay while reduced glutathione GSH served as the positive control. The superoxide scavenging activity was calculated using the following equation:. The reducing power of the biscuit samples was determined according to the modified method of Benzie and Strain Sample or GSH was dissolved in 0. The FRAP reagent was prepared by mixing 0. The Control 1 was a mixture of starch solution and sample without the addition of enzyme, whereas Control 2 was a mixture of starch solution and enzyme without addition sample.


Samples were hydrated in 0. A known value of 0. The rate of starch digestion was expressed as the percentage of starch hydrolyzed per time. The in vitro protein digestibility was estimated using a multienzyme technique described by Hsu, Vavak, Satterlee, and Miller Sample was ground and dissolved in double distilled water DDQ.

The multienzyme solution 1. Ash contents ranged from 1. Crude fiber contents 2. Fat contents ranged from The variation could be due to differences in the oil absorption capacities of the different flour blends.

Similar result of increased protein content from 5. Chinma, Igbabul, and Omotayo also reported protein contents of High carbohydrate content This could be due to the fact that the biscuit is composed mainly of acha cereal which has high carbohydrate content.

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Carbohydrate contents of formulated biscuits decreased from This implies that increased supplementation with legume and reduced percentage of cereal flour resulted in a reduction in carbohydrate contents and consequent increase in protein contents. Supplementation with pigeon pea flour contributed to reduced caloric contents; thus, the biscuit may be useful to consumers with health challenge requiring low carbohydrate content foods.

The presence of antinutrients in food reduces nutrient bioavailability when such food products are consumed. APC1 and APC2 had lower phytate contents which suggest that substitution with legume flour reduced the phytate contents of the snacks.

The phytate contents of the crackers in this study are lower than those reported for rtimi snacks 0. However, antinutrient contents of the formulated crackers are low, hence high possibility of nutrient protein, mineral bioavailability for consumers of the snack. The composition of calcium, magnesium, iron, and zinc of the crackers ranged from 0. The microelements reduced with an increase in pea supplementation, suggesting that acha flour is the main source of mineral in the snacks. Iron is known to play an important role in nutrition.

Potassium has a beneficial effect on sodium balance, and a high dietary intake has been shown to protect human from conditions affecting cardiovascular function. Anjum, Ahmad, Butt, Sheikh, and Pasha reported that cereal proteins are deficient in certain essential amino acids, mainly lysine. Hence, it is necessary to supplement cereal protein with legume protein for a balance of amino acids composition in food products.

Anuonye, Onuh, Egwim, and Adeyemo reported that acha grain has the highest methionine content among the cereals. The present study revealed kfaker the use of acha and pigeon pea flours for crackers production improved the amino acid composition, especially essential amino acids such as lysine and arginine The formulated snack also exhibited increased lysine content with a supply of balanced amino acid superior to market sample which served as control BCC.

Most of the amino acids krxker with increase in supplementation with pigeon pea flour. This suggests that ACC, APC1, and APC2 may exhibit better antioxidative properties as AAA are known to freely donate hydrogen atom to electron deficient free radicals, hence, neutralizing the radical as well as breaking the radical chain. BV captures how readily a digested protein can be absorbed and utilized for protein synthesis in human cell.


The formulated biscuits are expected to serve as snacks which may accompany some other meal; thus, it suffices to deduce that the formulated biscuit is a nutritionally potent and rich snack that can contribute part of human’s daily dietary requirements. United State Dairy Export Council. Legumes are noted for their high levels of bioactive compounds which can influence glucose metabolism.

Incorporation of legume pigeon pea flour into cereal flour for biscuits kraer can contribute to the bioactivity of the biscuits. Different mechanisms such as free radical scavenging activities and reducing properties are used by food to exert its antioxidant properties.

Free radicals are generated by aerobic organisms during normal metabolic processes. They are highly reactive; oxidize protein, lipids, DNA, and consequently result in oxidative damage. Antioxidants play vital role in defending the human body against generated free radicals.

The free radical scavenging activities of the biscuit extracts were concentration dependent for rretimi antioxidant properties evaluated. The results obtained in the present study are higher than those reported by Adefegha and Oboh for wheat—bambara biscuits.

The superoxide radical scavenging activity 1. The retiimi suggests that the biscuits possess an average potency to scavenge the superoxide radicals. Antioxidant activity of formulated snack. The FRAP value was concentration dependent and ranged from 0.

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Overall, the results of the antioxidant activities of the cracker biscuits suggest that the formulated snacks may be practical radical scavengers, capable of combating key degenerative diseases associated with free radicals ktaker well serving as a functional snack for dietary intervention.

The result depicts that percentage inhibition was concentration dependent. However, there was a decline in activity at concentrations beyond 0.

The results obtained retiml, however, lower than that of acarbose This revealed that both enzymes have a synergistic effect on blood glucose.

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As the snacks have high inhibitory activity of the two key digestive enzymes, it may be potential products for the management of diabetes. In vitro protein digestibility IV PD refers to the actual amount of protein absorbed into the body relative to the amount that was ingested or consumed Lean, IV PD assessment is carried out to evaluate nutrient bioavailability as nutrient composition protein content is not sufficient to predict its bioavailability upon consumption.

IV PD of the crackers decreased with increase in substitution with pigeon pea flour. The formulated crackers ACC with the least protein keaker This could be as a result of the high content of phytate in BCC which may bind to protein thus reducing nutrient availability, digestibility, and utilization. Also, the result suggests that high protein content does not directly imply high digestibility of the protein when ingested.

The presence of antinutrients such as trypsin inhibitors has been reported to cause a reduction in protein digestibility, although the amount of trypsin inhibitors in the biscuit samples was quite low to account for the consequently observed decrease in IV PD of cracker biscuits containing pigeon pea flour.

The observed decrease in IV PD may be as a result of nonenzymic browning reaction between flour protein and sugars resulting in possible nonreversible formation of compounds leading to reduction in the protein available for digestion. The results of Ayo, Ayo, Nkama, and Adewori corroborate the findings in this study.