Function of Traffic Signs. Effectiveness of Traffic Signs. Application of Traffic Signs. Excessive Use of Traffic Signs. Standardization of Traffic. This manual supersedes and forms part of the revised version of JKR/J(Rb) / 80, Manual on Traffic Control Devices-Traffic Signs. The Manual is now divided. J. K. R. Malaysia, “Arahan Teknik (Jalan) 2A/85,” Manual On Traffic Control Devices, Public Work Deparment (JKR), Malaysia,
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The Manual is now divided into the following parts: Standard traffic signs drawings for Regulatory, Warning and Guide signs are illustrated complete with dimensions. A color chart for all the traffic signs indicates acceptable colors for each sign. It consists of, with the exception of Temporary signs, design criteria and location requirements for all traffic signs.
It consists of standard temporary sign drawings and their application in the work zones. Standard road line paints, road manal and delineators are identified together with guides on their applications.
The specifications in this manual are recommended to be used for all new signs and for all replacements of existing signs which have outlived their usefulness. These mobile sign displays may be mounted on a regular maintenance vehicle. If the temporary operations require measures different from those normally in effect,the existing permanent dontrol signs shall be removed or covered and superseded by the appropriate temporary sign.
In other words, temporary signs are used to notify road users of specific hazards which may be encountered when temporary operations are underway.
2A/85 (Manual On Traffic Control Devices: Standard Traffic Signs)
Temporary signs shall be placed in positions where they will convey their messages most effectively and placement must therefore be accommodated to highway design and alignment. The signs shall be so placed that road users will, have adequate timer for response.
As a general rule signs shall be located on the left-hand side of the highway. Where special emphasis is deemed necessary, dual installations may be made which consist of duplicate signs opposite each other on the left and right sides of the roadway, respectively. It is also permissible to mount appropriate signs on barricades.
Temporary signs should be mounted on portable supports that are suitable for temporary conditions. All such installations should be so constructed to yield upon impact and to minimize hazards to motorists.
For maximum mobility on certain types of maintenance operations, a large sign may be effectively mounted on a vehicle stationed in advance of the work or moving along with it. L Temporary signs are either circular,rectangular, or diamond in shape.
The colors shall be black symbol or word message and border on orange backround unless specified or show to be otherwise in the accompanying illustrations. Retro-reflective sheetings of minimum engineering grade shall be used on all temporary sign.
In addition to temporary sign, flashing beacons and other form of delineations shall be used to supplement guidance through the work zones. If no lane or shoulder closure is involved, the transition area will not be used.
In this chapter, each of the “. Parts” will be-exam conrol for one direction of travel. Figureillustrates the five parts of a traffic.
These changes may be hazardous for drivers, workers,and pedestrians unless protective measures are taken. Drivers will not make a distinction between construction, maintenance, or utility opera tions. Proper traffic control and safety are needed for all types of work. This part has been designed and written to manjal the application of the standards to the various’ work situations. It should be contgol ful to anyone involved with planning, designing,: The illustra tions scan be- used for ‘a jkg guide forvarious examples of traffic control.
Contained in this part are guidelines varying from planning’ traffic control to fit the needs of a-particular work activity to’ the reasons for keeping accurate records. The traffic control zone is the distance between the first advance warning sign and the point beyond the work area where traffic is no longer affected. Before reaching the work area, drivers should have, enough time to alter their driv ing patterns.
The advance warning area may vary from om eries of signs starting 1 km, in advance of the work area to a single sign or flashing lights on a vehicle, 2. An advance warning sign should be used when any problems or conflicts with the flow of traffic may be anticipated. For most operations, the length can be: There are two for mulas for determining the maanual of a taper L used for lane closures Figure of this section.
If restricted sight distance is a prob lem, the taper should begin well. Figure shows the taper lengths, the recommended number, and spacing of channelizing devices.
Observe traffic to see if the taper. In this situation, the function of the taper is not to cause traffic to merge, but rather to resolve the potential head-on conflict. A short taper is used to cause traffic to slow down by giving the appearance of restricted conteol. A flagger is usually 2. In the transition area, traffic is channelized from the normal highway lanes to the path required to move traffic around the work area.
The transition area contains the tapers which are used to close lanes. The correct path, should be clearly marked with channeliz. Contrrol pavement markings need to be removed and new markings placed when they conflict with the transition.
Pavement marking arrows are useful in transition areas.
A shadow vehicle may be used to warn and guide traf fic into the proper lane. Four general types of tapers used in traffic control zones are: It is important for the buffer space to be free of equipment, workers, materials, and work ers vehicles 2: The suggested spacing in meters is equal to two times the spacing for lane closure taper 2.
Lane of traffic uses a lane that normally flows in the opposite direction. In these situ ations, a buffer space should be used to sep arate the two tapers for opposing directions of traffic because it could help prevent headon collisions.
Closure Taper a When an improved shoulder is closed on a high-speed roadway, it should be treated as a closure of a portion of the roadway which the motorists expects to use in an emergency. The work area on the shoulder should be preceded by a taper that may be shorter than for lane closures.
One-half of the length from Figure is suggested as a maximum for shoulder closure tapers, provided conrtol shoulder is not used as a travel lane.
If the shoulder is being used as a. It is placed in the termina tion area. While closing tapers are optional, they may be useful in smoothing traffic flow. They, may not be advisable when material trucks move into the work area by backing up from the downstream end of the work area.
Work areas may remainin fixed locations or’ may move as work progresses. An empty buffer space may be included at the upstream end. The work area is usually delineated by channeliz ing devices or’shielded by barriers to exclude traffic and pedestrians. With a moving operation, the buffer space is the space between the shadow vehicle, if one is used, and the work vehicle. Physical,deterrents to normal operation exist, such as uneven pavements, vehicles loading or unloading.
A down stream taper may contrkl placed in the termina tion area.
2E/87 (Manual On Traffic Control Devices: Guide Sign and Design Application)
For example, if a taper were used to shift traffic into opposing lanes. It should not be erected until work begins. Devices placed on a tangent along the work area to keep traffic out of. For highspeed roadways, the devices should be-spaced 2 to 4 times the spacing for lane closure taper. For-low-speed or urban roadways, a closer spacing may be used.
This column is appropriate for lane widths less than 3. A,properly installed,traff c control, zone will allow traffic to pass through or around a work zone safely and requires time and effort for planning, installation, and maintenance.
All’ employees involved with work zone safety should be properly trained. Planning for traffic, control through a construction zone may be more involved than for maintenance or utility zones because of the differences in traffic disruption and duration of-the-work. Traffic volume and length of time that the closure will be in effect both determine the exposure of traffic to potential hazards. The goals common to, all traffic control zones are: Avoid introducing severely reduced travel path geometrics at the approaches to or within the work area.
For example lightweight channelizing devices and sand bags to act as a buffer should be used to protect barrier ends.
Sand bags are recom mended too to be,placed on the. Consider using a portable barrier. Provide safe pedestrian and. Provide a safe entrance and exit for work vehicles. This may require the use of temporary traffic signals, flaggers, or temporary portable barriers.
As required by safety and health regulations, provide safety clothing, hardhats, and equipment for employees. The guidelines for traffic control listed here are for normal situations and additional protection should be provided when special complexities and hazards exist. Emergency Work a Can occur at any time of day or night b May be caused by storm damage c May involve customer disruptions of utility service.
New construction and some maintenance activities are planned as opposed to emer gency activities so these guidelines should be followed.
To pro tect mobile and moving operations, shadow vehicles may be used and equipped with signs, flags, and flashing lights as’ appropri ate. The traffic control plan should be aimed at reducing inconvenience and conflicts. If an alter nate route is not feasible be prepared to use signs, flaggers, and radio announcements to warn traff. They may be stationary, mobile, or moving operations.
The traffic control needed will vary according to the nature, location and duration of work, type of roadway and speed of traffic and potential hazard. It is intended that the guidance in this section will apply to utility work, maintenance, and construction work zones.
If any of the traveled lanes are closed, tapers shall be used as required. If a shoulder is closed, a shoulder taper is suggested.