Download Citation on ResearchGate | El tríptico del diablo. En torno al libro de Sendebar | By analysing the magical fountain’s tale and the general structure of. Influencias sintácticas y estilísticas del árabe en la prosa medieval castellana. a. “Algunos errores en la transmisión del ‘Calila’ y el ‘Sendebar’. repertory, not as a sequence, and it matters little if one reads the Lucidario before the Sendebar, or Chapter/Exemplum XXIV of one of the works before.
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The Toledo School of Translators Spanish: Escuela de Traductores de Toledo is the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic. The School went through two distinct periods separated by a transitional phase. The first was led by Archbishop Raymond of Toledo in the 12th century, who promoted the translation of philosophical and religious works, mainly from classical Arabic into Latin.
Under King Alfonso X of Castile during the 13th century, the translators no longer worked with Latin as the final language, but translated into a revised version of Castilian.
Toledo School of Translators
This resulted in establishing the foundations of the modern Spanish language. Traditionally Toledo was a center of multilingual culture and had prior importance as a center of learning and translation, beginning in its era under Muslim rule.
Numerous classical works of ancient philosophers and scientists that had been translated into Arabic during the Islamic Golden Age “back east” were well known in al-Andalus Islamic-era Spain such as those from the Neoplatonism school, AristotleHippocratesGalenPtolemyetc. Spain’s multi-cultural richness beginning in the era of Umayyad dynasty rule in that land was one of the main reasons why European sensebar were traveling to study there as dendebar as the end of the 10th century.
As the Arabic-speaking rulers who initially came in intermingled and intermarried with local populations, the co-existence of Arabic, Hebrew, Latin, and the local Romance vernacular had seen the emergence of new pidgin vernaculars and bilingual song forms, as well as the creation of new bodies of literature in Arabic and Hebrew.
The environment bred multi-lingualism. This era saw the development of a large community of Arabic-speaking Christians known as Mozarabs who were available to work on translations. But translating efforts were not methodically organized until Toledo was reconquered by Christian forces in Another reason for Spain’s importance at the time is that Christian leaders in many other parts of Europe considered many scientific and theological subjects studied by the ancients, and further advanced by the Arabic-speaking scientists and philosophers, to be heretical.
The Condemnations of — at the medieval University of Parisfor example, were enacted to restrict the teachings of several theological works, among which were the physical treatises of Aristotle  and the works of Averroes the Latinized name of the Muslim philosopher-physician of al-Andalus, Ibn Rushd.
Raymond of ToledoArchbishop of Toledo from to sendehar, started the first translation efforts at the library of the Senrebar of Toledowhere he led a team of translators who included Mozarabic Toledans, Jewish scholars, Madrasah teachers, and monks from the Order of Cluny.
They translated many works, usually from Arabic into Castilian, and then from Castilian into Latin, as it was the official church language. In some cases, the translator could work directly from Arabic into Latin or Greek.
The work of these scholars made available very important texts from Arabic and Hebrew philosophers, whom the Archbishop deemed important for an understanding of several classical authors, specially Aristotle. Gerard of Cremona was the most productive of the Toledo translators at the time, translating more than 87 books in Arabic science.
Since he did not know Arabic when he arrived, he relied on Jews and Mozarabs for translation and teaching.
Another important translator was John of Seville. Together with Dominicus Gundissalinus during the early days of the School, he was the main translator from Arabic into Castilian. John of Seville translated Secretum Secretoruma 10th-century Arabic encyclopedic treatise on a wide range of topics, including statecraft, ethics, physiognomy, astrology, alchemy, magic and medicine, which was very influential in Europe during the High Middle Ages.
Overall he’s known for his intelligent syntheses, combined with his own observations and interpretations, particularly in astrology. Rudolf of Brugesa Flemish astronomer and translator from Arabic to Latin,  was a pupil of Hermann of Carinthia. He translated into Latin the Liber de compositione astrolabii, a major work of Islamic science on the astrolabeby Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al-Majriti which he dedicated to his colleague John of Seville.
Dominicus Gundissalinus is considered to be the first appointed director of the Toledo School of Aendebar, beginning in He depended on John of Seville for all translations in that language.
Later in his career Gundissalinus mastered Arabic sufficiently to translate it by himself. Unlike his colleagues, he sendebwr exclusively on philosophy, translating Greek and Arabic works and the commentaries of earlier Muslim philosophers of the peninsula.
At one time it was thought to be the work of the Christian scholastic Avicebron. He is known for frequently eliminating passages and adding his own commentaries, rather than being scrupulously faithful to the originals.
Michael Scota Scotsman who studied at Oxford University and in Paris before settling in Toledo, also worked as a translator during this period. He Also translated the works of al-Betrugi Alpetragius inOn the Motions of the Heavensand Averroes’ influential commentaries on the scientific works of Aristotle,  among many others. Herman “the German”was Bishop of Astorga — . He was a personal friend of Manfred of Sicily. His place of birth is unknown, but it is known that he was an important figure in Castile’s intelectual life before being appointed Bishop.
Herman also wrote his own philosophical commentary and summary of the Nicomachean Ethics . During the decades following Archbishop Raimundo’s death, the translating activity in Toledo decreased considerably, although it continued into the next century, and overlapped with Alfonso’s School of Translators.
At least one translator, Hermannus Alemannus, is known to have worked in both schools; he translated the Old Testament during the second period. This transitional period was when the first direct translations were made from Arabic into the vernacular Castilian.
Mark of Toledoa Spanish physician and Canon of Toledo, translated the Qur’an and various medical works  such as Hunayn ibn Ishaq ‘s Liber isagogarumHippocrates’ De aere aquis locis ; and Hunayn Ibn Ishaq’s versions of four of Galen’s treatises: De tactu pulsusDe utilitate pulsusSe motu membrorumDe motibus liquidis.
John of Toledo attended the School to study works of medicine before returning to England and being ordained cardinal. Later he traveled to Rome, where he became a personal physician to the Pope. He is believed to have translated into Latin several medical treatises which dealt with practical medicine. Hermannus Alemannus worked in Toledo between Although at the service of Manfred Naples from —66, he returned to Spain where he became a naturalized citizen of the kingdom of Castile.
Sehdebar translated most of Aristotle’s Rhetoricinterspersed with portions of Averroes ‘ middle commentary and short fragments from Avicenna and AlfarabiAristotle’s Aethica Nichomacheamiddle commentary on the Poeticsfinished Averroes’ Commentario Medio y Poetica to Aristotle’s Rhetoric, translated the Psalterio from the Hebrew text into Castilian, and translated from Arabic to Castilian an epitome of the Ethics known as the Summa Alexandrinorum.
Under King Alfonso X of Castile known as the WiseToledo rose even higher in importance as a translation center, as well as for the writing of original scholarly works.
The Crown did not officially recognize the School, but the team of scholars and translators shared their communal knowledge and taught newcomers new languages and translation methods.
There were usually several persons involved in the same translation. The Castilian Crown paid for most of sendebzr work, and sometimes hired the most able translators from other parts of Spain and Europe to join the school at Toledo.
Fl Alfonso’s decision to abandon Latin as the target language for the translations and use a revised vernacular version of Castilian, had very significant consequences on the development of the first foundations of the Spanish language. By his insisting that the texts translated be “llanos de entender” “easy to understand” he ensured that the texts would reach a much wider audience, both within Spain and in other European countries. The scholars from such nations as Italy, Germany, England or the Netherlands, who had moved to Toledo in order to translate medical, religious, classical and philosophical texts, returned to their countries with the acquired knowledge from classical Arabic, classical Greek, and ancient Hebrew.
The King also commissioned the translation into Castilian of several “oriental” fables and tales which, although written in Arabic, were originally in Sanskrit, such as the Kalila wa-Dimna Panchatantra and the Sendebzr. Translation methods evolved under the direction of Alfonso X. Previously, a native speaker would verbally communicate the sendebaar of the books to a scholar, who would dictate its Latin equivalent to a scribe, who wrote down the translated text.
Under the new methodology, a translator, with expertise in several languages, dictated from the base language, translating into Castilian for the scribe, who wrote down the Castilian version. The scribe’s work was later reviewed by one or several editors. Among those editors was the King, who had a keen interest in many disciplines, such as science, history, law, and literature.
Ek effectively managed and selected each of the translators, and reviewed some of their work, encouraging intellectual debate.
Under Alfonso’s leadership, Sephardic Jewish scientists and translators acquired a prominent role in the School. They were highly valued by the King because of their intellectual skills and mastery of the two languages most used in the translations: He intended to prove that the texts were a reflection of Christian doctrine, and that the Jews put their souls in peril by not acknowledging that. Alfonso obtained the book from a Jew who had kept it hidden, and commanded Yehuda to translate it from Arabic into the Castilian language.
Yehuda ben Moshe was one of the most notable Jewish translators during this period and also worked as the King’s physician, even before Alfonso was crowned. He also did the Tetrabiblon or Quatriparito Ptolemy15 treatises on astrology effects of stars on man and properties of stones with which to ward off negative astral influencesand Los IIII libros de las estrellas de la ochaua esperathat the King Alfonso later ordered to be revised by Samuel ha-LeviJoan de Mesina, and Joan de Cremona.
He also contributed to the translation of another book on judicial astrology, the Libro conplido en los iudizios de las estrellasthat was, ironically, translated from Latin as it was used among the Visigothsinto Arabicand then back into Castilian and Latin.
Copernicus himself owned a copy. Isaac ibn Sid was another renowned Jewish translator favored by the King; he was highly learned on astronomy, astrology, architecture and mathematics. At the King’s direction, he produced a translation of the Libro de las armellas that was simple and easy to understand, so that “any man could readily use it”. Isaac ibn Sid also contributed to the translation, Libro de quadrante pora rectificar: Of his works, the most important are those of the “round astrolabe” and the “flat astrolabe”.
He also contributed to translations of Armellas de PtolemyPiedra de la sombra stone of the shadow, or sundialRelox de agua clepsydra, or water clockArgente vivo o azogue quicksilver or mercuryand Candela candle clock.
This is the only documented case of a double, simultaneous translation. After Alfonso’s death, Sancho IV of Castilehis self-appointed successor, dismantled most of the team of translators, and soon most of its members transferred their efforts to other activities under new patronages, many of them leaving the city of Toledo. The translations of works on different sciences, such as astronomy, astrology, algebra, medicine, etc. Thanks to this group of scholars and writers, the knowledge acquired from the Arabic, Greek and Hebrew texts found its way into the heart of the universities in Europe.
Although the works of Aristotle and Arab philosophers were banned at some European learning centers, such as the University of Paris in the early s,  the Toledo’s translations were accepted, due to their physical and cosmological nature. Albertus Magnus based his systematization of Aristotelian philosophy, and much of his writings on astronomy, astrology, mineralogy, chemistry, zoology, physiology, and phrenology upon those translations made in Toledo.
Roger Bacon relied on many of the Arabic translations to make important contributions in the fields of optics, astronomy, the natural sciences, chemistry and mathematics. Many other scholars of the Renaissance period used the translation of ibn al-Haitham ‘s Kitab al-manazirwhich was the most important optical treatise of ancient and medieval times.
Sendebar by Anonymous
Nicolaus Copernicusthe first scientist to formulate a comprehensive heliocentric cosmology, which placed the sun instead of the earth at the center of the universe, studied the translation of Ptolemy’s astronomical Almagest. He also used the data for astronomical computing contained in the Alfonsine tablesof which he owned a ep after they were published in Venice in Other translated works of astronomical nature, such as Theorica planetarumwere used eel an introductory text in astronomy by European students all through the 15th century.
Another side effect of this linguistic enterprise was the promotion of a revised version sendebbar the Castilian language that although incorporated a large amount of scientific and technical vocabulary, it had streamlined its syntax in order to be understood by people from all walks of life and to reach the masses, while being made suitable for higher expressions of thought. The contributions of all these scholars, both oral and written, under the tutelage and direction of Alfonso X, established the sednebar of the modern supranational Spanish language.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Haskins, Sendebsr in Mediaeval Sciencepp. A History of the University in Europe: Volume 1, Universities in the Middle Ages. Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts. Ancient and Medieval Science. Haskins, Renaissance of the Twelfth Century, p. Wightman The Growth of Scientific Ideasp. Universidad de Castilla La Mancha.