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Carbohydrates intake for a healthy diet. For many decades cappepli attention in releasing dietary guidelines was focused mainly on calories and their distribution among the three macronutrients: For example, Chowanadisai et al. For example, although sucrose does not contain any fat or cholesterol, it is considered to be an unhealthy food, to be consumed in limited amounts, because of its effects on insulin levels.

Insulin spikes can impair health and promote cardiovascular diseases by stimulating lipogenesis, increasing body fat, triglycerides, and pro-inflammatory molecules. Starch sources, such as bread, rice, and pasta, can increase blood glucose levels more than sucrose. Using starch as the main dietary source of energy might represent a relevant pejorative factor for human health and longevity, which could contribute to the development of some of the most common chronic diseases.

Healthy fats, on the contrary, might be a better choice as main source of energy, provided carbohydrates and insulin levels are kept under strict control. Nutritional sciences are dramatically evolving. The effects of foods and nutrients on hormones have a great importance and relevance, and have to be considered while designing dietary guidelines for healthy eating. Hormones are able to determine the destiny of ingested vannucchi and nutrients, including whether they have to be oxidized as energy or stored as deposit.

Insulin is one of the most relevant hormones responding to ingested food, especially in regard to fat metabolism. It has a powerful lipogenic and antilipolytic effect in human adipose tissue. High insulin levels might also be detrimental on health, especially under a cardiovascular point of view. Indeed, insulin spikes can increase the levels of endogenous cholesterol, and of cellular mediators causing inflammation, blood coagulation, vasoconstriction, autoimmune reactions, and asthma.

High insulin spikes are caused by dietary sugars. Furthermore, sugars also damage the vascular endothelium and deplete its nitric oxide levels. Complex carbohydrates, mainly starches from grains, have always been recommended as main energy source of the diet, in amounts 5 to 30 times higher than sucrose, even though they are nutrients of the same type, which is pure carbohydrates vznnucchi neither fats vannuccui cholesterol.

This occurred because of a presumed slower absorption speed of starch. However, the assessment of the glycemic index of foods showed capprlli they exert at least the same impact on blood glucose as sucrose does, even higher in many cases. The usually recommended daily intake of complex carbohydrates might have similar effects on the body as those associated with the ingestion of g to g of sucrose every day.

Healthy fatty acids might be the best energy source for the body, provided a strict control on carbohydrates ingestion and blood insulin levels. Nutrients can affect the levels of important hormones, such as glucagon, insulin, cortisol, etc.

Cappellu can determine the destiny of nutrients and calories ingested with food, affecting their oxidation into energy or accumulation.

Furthermore, a single hormone, such as insulin, can affect the levels of several other hormones and cellular mediators, causing a cascade of effects in the body. It is important to consider these effects in order to determine the recommended daily intakes of nutrients. Calcium is a clear example of nutrient whose storage in the bones vanucchi determined by hormones. Calcitonin, parathormone, and vitamin D are hormones that regulate blood levels, bone release and storage of calcium.

A severe lack of vitamin D could decrease bone density independently of the dietary calcium intake. It causes osteomalacia in adults and rickets in infants.

Muscle tissue is made of protein. The increased hypertrophy and growth caused by the administration of anabolic steroids 3 is another example of increased storage of nutrients caused by hormones amino acids in form of proteins vxnnucchi this vnnucchi.

Like muscle mass, adipose tissue is also influenced by vannuccho action of hormones. Thyroid hormones, for example, stimulate fat oxidation, 4 while insulin increases fat deposit. Similarly to what happens to muscle mass with an increase of anabolic hormones, an increase of insulin can lead to increased body fat.

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This is very important, especially in regard to carbohydrate ingestion. Several are the effects of insulin on body fat and functioning. The meal of one group consisted vannuccbi water. The other two groups received two different isocaloric meals, with the same amount of carbohydrates, but different glycemic index: The group ingesting the low glycemic index carbohydrates showed a similar fat oxidation as the water only group, while the high glycemic index carbohydrates inhibited the fat oxidation vannicchi the respective group.

Since calories were the same, and the low glycemic index meal showed a response similar to water, the fat-burning impairment of the third group was most likely due to the insulin spike induced by the post-prandial glucose spike of the high glycemic index carbohydrates. It is able to activate the DeltaDesaturase enzyme, 1314 which vanbucchi the levels of Arachidonic Acid. Arachidonic acid is the precursor of several pro-inflammatory prostaglandins, pro-coagulant thromboxanes, and leukotrienes which can be involved in cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune reactions and asthma.

Chimica Degli Alimenti Vannucchi Pdf To Word – lostdn

For all the reasons mentioned above it is clear that preventing sharp blood glucose spikes should be one of the main strategies to apply when implementing dietary recommendations. In past one of the main factors that was considered in order to establish the recommended carbohydrate amounts for a healthy diet was their chemical structure.

This concept leads to specific and substantial characteristics of the so-called food pyramid.

The food pyramid shows on top, the apex, foods that are more likely to be unhealthy, and that have to be consumed in very moderate amounts. Simple sugars are included vannuccchi them. The more the pyramid structure enlarges towards its base, the healthier and safer are considered the foods that vannuccui been assigned to any determined level.

These foods have to be ingested in larger amounts: Complex carbohydrates are considered the main macronutrient of a healthy diet. For this reason, grain-derived foods, rich on starch, a complex carbohydrate such as pasta, rice, bread, and cornflakes have cappellu placed at the base of the food pyramid, the larger level.

In the Food Pyramid published by the U. Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, 16 for example, the recommended daily servings of the group including bread, pasta, rice, and cereals are between 6 and In terms of grams of carbohydrates, they range between approximately g and g of complex carbohydrates per day.

Carbohydrates intake for a healthy diet

It corresponds to a daily amount of g. In the Italian food pyramid 17 cxppelli and honey are also located on top. The recommended daily amount of sucrose consists in 15g per day 3 portions of 5g each. Simple sugars and starches are the same type of nutrient: It is a pure carbohydrate source. The reason why it is recommended to dramatically limit the amounts of sucrose lies in its effects in the body, rather than in a high content of cholesterol or other detrimental molecules.

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By being a simple sugar, its absorption speed is very high. Once eaten, it causes very sharp blood glucose spikes and, consequently, insulin spikes. A chronic daily intake vannkcchi sucrose above the recommended limits, would be likely to cause the harmful effects mentioned above, in the paragraph dedicated to the effects of insulin in the body: Furthermore, blood glucose spikes can also affect the vascular endothelial function, oxidize the vascular endothelium, increase the inflammatory reactions and the likelihood of the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, bannucchi22 prevent the arterial dilation, 23 and inactivate nitric oxide.

It indeed is required to regulate the elasticity of vessels, the inflammatory processes, 25 to protect against atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases, 2526 and for many other processes. The assumption that complex carbohydrates are absorbed slowly because the intestine can only absorb monosaccharides has been tested since many decades.

The Vvannucchi of Sydney created a website 27 containing an extensive database of the GI of many different food products and varieties. The Table 1 shows the GI of some of the most common foods vannucchj complex carbohydrates. Table 1 Glycemic index of common food sources of starch Among the main dietary starch sources, the products with the less high GI are certain varieties of pasta, especially spaghetti.


Other varieties have the same impact of sucrose on blood glucose. On average the effect of pasta is slightly lower but similar to that of sucrose. All the other food products of the mentioned category have a higher IG than sucrose.

The meaning of these results is very important. They show that a given cappwlli of complex carbohydrates from starch has at least the same effect on blood glucose in the human cwppelli as cannucchi same effect on blood glucose in the human body as the same amount of sucrose, and most of the times an even higher impact.

Eating g to g of starch every day, as recommended by the American food pyramid, 16 might produce the same effects in the body as eating at least to g of sucrose respectively, which means approximately 40 to teaspoons, every day. A similar comparison applies to the Italian food pyramid and dietary guidelines shown above. The irrelevant difference cappe,li the GI of white and whole bread shown in Table 1 vannucdhi suggests that a few grams of fibers that can be added to a meal by choosing whole grain products, or adding some vegetables, are not enough to make hundreds of grams of sucrose-like carbohydrates starches better than the recommended 15 g limit established for sucrose.

Neither it is advisable to eat or g of sucrose in a cap;elli meal, just because of the GI decrease caused by the combination of fats and other foods together. If this type of nutrition can have effects similar to those of the chronic daily ingestion of 40 to 80 teaspoons of sucrose, it might not be a coincidence that diabetes, cardiovascular, and brain diseases present a worrisome diffusion.

Chimica degli alimenti. Conservazione e trasformazione

The lipogenic and antilipolytic effect of insulin impairs a proper utilization of fats. If starches from grains would be considered similar to sucrose, and dramatically decreased to similar amounts, the human body might probably be able to utilize much better acppelli dietary fats as energy source. Fats could be the actual best source of energy for a good health and efficiency, providing a very strict control on carbohydrates intake and blood insulin levels. It would be capprlli interesting to further investigate the metabolic and cardiovascular behavior of the body undergoing vannuccho regular, stable, and well-balanced mid- to long-term lower-carbohydrate and higher-fat type of diet.

The daily intake of carbohydrates could be established as just enough to prevent ketosis, making sure to choose low-glycemic index foods as sources and to divide it throughout all the meals and snacks, in order to never ingest more than 20 to 30 vnanucchi of carbohydrates per time.

The fat sources should also be chosen properly, since an excess of Omega-6 fatty acids might interfere with the assessment of possible benefits of the proposed regimen. The dietary fats should be sourced in a way to avnnucchi a natural wild environment, primarily from grass-fed meat, fish, olives, almonds, and nuts. The goal should be to provide mainly monounsaturated fatty acids as energy source, and to restore as much as possible the primordial Omega Omega-3 fatty acids ratio.

The Omega-3 fatty acid EPA Eicosapentaenoic Acid is able to counteract the effects of glucose and insulin on the increase of inflammatory molecules.

An optimized utilization of resources and spaces, an intelligent distribution, diffusion, and integration of pastures and grass, and a stronger adoption of special techniques, such as vertical vajnucchi and hydroponics, should be included in a really effective strategy to heal the world. Grains might not be the right answer to world hanger. They might mean feeding the world on sugar.

MedCrave Group is ardent to provide article reprints at an instant affordable Read more Click here to submit your manuscript Nicola Di Pietro 1,2. December 30, Published: The science of nutrition is continuously evolving.