Paul Valéry w Sztuce poezji twierdzi, że tłumacząc Wergiliusza, miał ochotę współczesne, a Slavitt bardziej interpretuje Bukoliki Wergiliusza niż je tłuma‑ czy. Strategie perswazyjne krytyków bukoliki na przykładzie ” A Discourse on Pastoral Poetry” pl Porównanie IV Bukoliki Wergiliusza i XVI Epody Horacego. Podczas gdy Bukoliki Wergiliusza wyrażają szczerą obawę o cjalnej. Idylliczny świat pasterzy Wergiliusza ulega rozpadowi: jego pasterze zapominają.

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Jacek Fabiszak Uniwersytet im. Mickiewicza werggiliusza Poznaniu Prof. The Haunting Interval Abingdon: Deconstruction s Traces Edinburgh: We are proud to propose a volume much more extensive than the two earlier issues with a new title, more concise but at the same more precise in expressing our plans. The range of subjects as well as the bilingual nature of our journal remain unchanged, we still intend to publish articles in Poland and in English.

In the selection of published texts we aim at subjects which would be connected with the scholarly and didactic profile of our Academy.

However, we do not shy away from experiments, in the present issue readers will also find studies in Latin, Spanish, and Old English texts.

For the first time we invited to our journal not only professors but also graduates of our Academy. We hope you will find their first published papers interesting. Just as in the two previous issues we propose here a selection of papers dealing in various aspects of linguistics, literary and cultural studies. We managed almost to triple the size of this issue as compared to earlier ones, we also added a new reviews section.

We are proud that so many scholars both from Poland and from abroad chose our journal as the place to publish their work. The third issue of our journal is ready. The editorial board awaits proposals of papers for the next issue, hoping that our journal will remain a good place for lively exchange of thoughts. Finally, we would like to all those who helped in us in our work in this issue, hoping we can count on their assistance in our future undertakings.

A comparison of the references to Rome s social memory in both these works points to a development of this phenomenon in Latin bucolic poetry. Whereas Virgil s Eclogues express wergiilusza genuine anxiety with the preservation of Rome s ancient customs and traditions in times of bukolki turbulence, Bukoluki Siculus s poems address issues of a different kind with the use of references to social memory. Virgil s shepherds see their pastoral community disseminating: Calpurnius Siculus, on the other hand, has his herdsmen strive for the emperor s patronage and a literary career in the big city, bored as they are by the countryside.

They desire a larger, more cohesive and active urban community in which they and their songs will receive the acclaim they deserve and consequently live on in Rome s social memory.

Calpurnius Siculus s poems are, however, in contrast to Virgil s, no longer concerned with social memory in itself. Quintus Ennius, one of the first Roman authors to write in Latin, captures a key element in Roman Republican literature. The commonwealth of Rome is founded firm on ancient customs and men of might trans.

Keyes, he says according to Marcus Tullius Cicero, drawing attention to the bukoliik between Rome s ancient wergiliysza and the state of the Res Publica.

In fact, Rome would not be Rome without its traditions. Understanding Ennius s statement is essential for the present investigation, in which we will compare references to social memory in three of Virgil s Eclogues with its traces in three pastoral poems by Calpurnius Siculus.

In order to do this, however, we must first get to grips with the Roman view on social memory, and social memory in general.

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The term social memory was first introduced by Maurice Halbwachs, who used it in combination with collective memory Halbwachs. In the words of Elizabeth Minchin, this is the communal store of shared experiences, stories, and memories that members of any social group acquire over time in their interactions with each other Minchin Rome too had such a communal store, which, as Ennius stresses, was central to Rome s.

David Meban has, in his article Virgil s Eclogues and Social Memory, provided an excellent analysis of social memory in Roman literature and in Virgil s Eclogues in particular. Suffice it here, by way of introduction, to illustrate Rome s social memory with some of the most telling references to the phenomenon, and to summarize how Rome s greatest bucolic poet, Virgil, relates to the collective remembrance of the past in his Eclogues.

Finally, after a study of social memory in Calpurnius Siculus poems, we will come to a comparison of its appearance in the bucolic works of Virgil and Calpurnius Siculus, thereby shedding light on a possible development in the use of social memory in Latin pastoral poetry. Other writers have also stressed the importance of Rome s traditions for the prosperity of the Res Publica. Cicero BCcommenting on Ennius s verse, emphasizes the significance of not only the traditions themselves, but also of their remembrance, which has been safeguarded by eminent men: Our poet seems to have obtained these words, so brief and true, from an oracle.


For neither men alone, unless a State is supplied with customs too, nor customs alone, unless there have also been men to defend them, could ever have been sufficient to found or to preserve so long a commonwealth whose dominion extends far and wide. Thus, before our own time, the customs of our ancestors produced excellent men, and eminent men preserved our ancient customs and the institutions of their forefathers.

Keyes1 The relevance of remembering ancient customs is again underscored by the Greek historian Polybius ca BCwho focuses on an important effect such remembrance might have. In his discussion of funerary practice, Polybius mentions the speeches which are meant to recollect the accomplishments of the deceased.

According to Polybius, however, these speeches do not merely effect the people attending the funeral, but reach the entire populace, thereby creating a sense of communion: The number after the colon refers to the page or pages on which the translation can be found.

Thus, the state of the Res Publica, its prosperity and stability, are grounded in Rome s ancient traditions, which ought to remain in Rome s public memory. This memory is what serves to promote Roman civic culture, strengthen social cohesion, and tie the individual more firmly to an enduring political community Gross94 Not surprisingly, it is especially at times of change and crisis, when prosperity and stability are at stake, that one perceives a growing concern with social memory Meban; also see Fentress and Wickham.

bukolika – translation – Polish-English Dictionary – Glosbe

Cicero, for instance, continues his comment on Ennius s verse by lamenting the current state of the Res Publica, which he connects to the people s neglect of Rome s ancient customs and thus to a breakdown in social memory: But though the republic, when it came to us, was like a beautiful painting, whose colours, however, were already fading with age, our own time not only has neglected to freshen it by renewing the original colours, but has not even taken the trouble to preserve its configuration and, so to speak, its general outlines.

For what is now left of the ancient customs on which he said the commonwealth of Rome was founded firm? They have been, as we see, so completely buried in oblivion that they are not only no longer practiced, but are already unknown. Other instances in which the troubling state of affairs is directly or indirectly linked to a decline in social memory are to be found in the prefaces of the Bellum Iugurthinum by Gaius Sallustius Crispus ca BC and of the Ab Urbe Condita by Titus Livius Patavinus ca.

Both authors signal the problems Rome is facing and argue that the preservation of memory, or the lack thereof, has an important role to play in their current situation. Especially during the later years of the Republic, when Rome was facing many abrupt changes, anxiety about the preservation of Rome s 2 Sallust Jug. Livy praef expresses the will to provide the Roman people with examples from Rome s glorious past.

One of the most important authors active at that time was Publius Vergilus Maro. He foresees Saturnia Regna and announces that the great line of centuries begins anew Ecl.

But although Virgil speaks of a new generation Ecl. Virgil wishes the land to be at peace, not troubled by man s labour: Earth will not suffer the harrow, nor the vine the pruning hook; the sturdy ploughman, too, will now loose his oxen from the yoke. What Virgil is hoping for, in other words, is otium, peace and quiet. When Virgil wrote the Eclogues, probably from 42 to about 35 BC Clausenxxii; also see Coleman14 21Rome had already been in a state of civil war for many years on end.

Additionally, life in the country was experiencing some quite dramatic changes, since many Romans were faced with land confiscations Scullard.

Virgil himself may have been a victim of these confiscations, something the first and ninth Eclogues could perhaps bear witness to. See, for instance, Schmidt36 and Clausen, who points to the lack of typically bucolic elements in the fourth Eclogue. This may be so, but it does not mean that Virgil s Saturnia Regna are principally different from the idyllic lives of the shepherds in most of the other Eclogues. In both cases, otium is an unmistakably characteristic feature of the bucolic world Virgil has in mind.


See, for the discussion, HardieFor supposed politics in Virgil s Eclogues in general see MartindaleWhether or not Virgil is referring to himself, it is clear that the land confiscations of the time are a key element to understanding the first and ninth Eclogues.

As has been argued above, times of turbulence meant anxiety about the preservation of social memory. So how is this anxiety visible in Virgil s Eclogues? The following brief analysis will revolve around three of the Eclogues, namely 1, 5 and 9, since these are the poems in which Virgil s concern with social memory is most clearly visible.

As it is Eclogue 9 which illustrates best the above points, it is only natural that the argument should begin here. Eclogue 9 focuses on the consequences of the land confiscations after the Battle of Phillipi 42 BC and is about absence, dispossession and a world falling to pieces Papanghelis Indeed, two shepherds, named Moeris and Menalcas, have been evicted from their farms by strangers Ecl.

The fact that things are looking particularly badly is further emphasized by the disintegration of the social frameworks of the pastoral community Meban This disintegration is crucial when it comes to the notion of social memory and its preservation. Social cohesion and the possibility of exchanging songs and thus memories with other members of society lie at the heart of the preservation of ancient customs and traditions.

In Eclogue 9, however, it would seem that the pastoral community is facing heavy weather. Lycidas mentions he slyly caught songs from Menalcas Ecl. Thus the three shepherds involved seem not to form a cohesive group, but rather to be members of a community which is having trouble avoiding division Additionally, the herdsmen s memory is not what it used to be.

This has three different implications, which are however closely connected to one another. Firstly, it leads to the shepherds literally forgetting songs, as is told by Moeris: Time robs us of all, even of memory; oft as a boy I recall that with song I would lay the long summer days to rest. Now I have forgotten all my songs. Even voice itself now fails Moeris; Ecl. For not only do Moeris s words mean that he has lost the ability of sharing his songs with others, they may also suggest that there will be no 5 For instance, when Lycidas recalls songs of Menalcas, the verses he recollects are in fact more similar to Theocritus s third Idyll than to any of the poems in Virgil s Eclogues Ecl.

In fact, there may be a certain reciprocity between the two aspects: Eclogue 5 has a less apparent political and historical framework see Coleman, but it too breathes an anxiety with social memory.

It tells how two shepherds, Mopsus and Menalcas, sing of the death of Daphnis, echoing both Moschus s Lament for Bion and Theocritus s first Idyll, and perhaps the death of Caesar as well. However, the most important purpose of Eclogue 5 seems not to lament the dead, but to commemorate him Meban What is particularly interesting for the present purposes, is that Mopsus, who is first to sing, has written down his song, instead of remembering it: No, I will try these verses, which the other day I carved on the green beech-bark and set to music, marking words and tune in turn Ecl.

This unprecedented reference to literacy in the world of pastoral Colemanties in with the assertions made in the previous section. What better way for a shepherd to preserve his songs, which he fears may be forgotten, than to write them down?

Furthermore, an additional advantage of writing is, of course, that one can reach a far greater public than by oral transmission alone Meban. Something similar is at work in the song of Menalcas, although he does not seem to be reading his composition. Instead, Menalcas s song focuses on the communal and communalizing character Caseyof the funerary ritual, thereby either celebrating the community as it is, or expressing the hope for a more cohesive community in which the transmission and preservation of ancient customs and traditions, including songs, is more likely to be successful Meban Moeris may still sing a song after all.

Furthermore, Meban argues, The rites Menalcas describes demand direct and collective participation, since at Ecl.