Download scientific diagram | Barómetro de mercurio de Torricelli en from publication: MEDICIÓN DE PRESIÓN BAROMÉTRICA DE ALTA EXACTITUD. Se conoce tres especies de barómetros: el barómetro de cubeta, el de sifon y y el de cuadrante. A estos se puede todavia añadir el barómetro sin mercurio de. Barónmetros Los instrumentos para medir la presión de la atmósfera se llaman barómetros. En la figura se muestra un barómetro sencillo de mercurio.
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Eugène Bourdon and the evolution of the manometer
Evangelista Torricelli was born on 15 October in Rome ; he invented the barometer in Florence, Italy. The firstborn child of Gaspare Torricelli and Caterina Angetti. His father was a textile worker and the family was very poor.
Seeing his talents, his parents sent him to be educated in Faenza, under the care of his uncle, Giacomo Jacoba Camaldolese monkwho first ensured that his nephew was given a sound basic education. He then entered young Torricelli into a Jesuit College inpossibly the one in Faenza itself, to study mathematics and philosophy untilby which time his father, Gaspare, had died.
The uncle then sent Torricelli to Rome to study science under the Benedictine monk Benedetto Castelliprofessor of mathematics at the Collegio della Sapienza torrucelli known as the Sapienza University of Rome. It is almost certain that Torricelli was taught by Castelli. In exchange he worked for him as his secretary from to as a private arrangement. While living in Rome, Torricelli became also the student of the mathematician Bonaventura Cavalieriwith whom he became great friends. Galileo referred to Torricelli, Magiotti, and Nardi affectionately as his “triumvirate” in Rome.
Inshortly after the publication of Galileo ‘s Dialogues torrricelli the New ScienceTorricelli wrote to Galileo of reading it “with the delight [ The Vatican condemned Galileo in Juneand this was the only known occasion on which Torricelli openly declared himself to hold the Copernican view.
Aside from several letters, little is known of Torricelli’s activities in the years between andwhen Castelli sent Torricelli’s monograph of the path of projectiles to Galileo, then a prisoner in his villa at Arcetri.
Although Galileo promptly invited Torricelli to visit, he did not accept torridelli just three months before Galileo’s death. The reason for this was that Torricelli’s mother, Caterina Angetti died. Right before the appointment, Torricelli was considering returning to Rome because of there being nothing left for him in Florence. As a result of this study, he wrote the book the Opera Geometrica in which he described his barometri.
The book was published in Little was known about Torricelli in regard to his works in geometry when he accepted the honorable position, but after he published Opera Geometrica two years later, he became highly esteemed in that discipline. On 11 Junehe famously wrote in a letter to Michelangelo Ricci:.
Noi viviamo sommersi nel fondo d’un pelago d’aria. We live submerged at the bottom of an ocean of air. However his work on the cycloid involved him in a controversy with Gilles de Robervalwho accused him of plagiarizing his earlier solution of the problem of its quadrature.
Although there seems no room for doubt that Torricelli’s was arrived at independently, the matter was still in dispute up to his death. Torricelli died of fever, most likely typhoid  in Florence on 25 October 10 days after his 39th birthday, and was buried at the Basilica of San Lorenzo. He left all his belongings to his adopted son Alessandro.
This early work owes much to the study of the classics. En virescit Galileus alter, meaning “Here blossoms another Galileo. In Faenza, a statue of Torricelli was created in in gratitude for all that Torricelli had done in advancing science during his short lifetime.
The perusal of Galileo ‘s Two New Sciences inspired him with many developments of the mechanical principles there set forth, which he embodied in a treatise De motu printed amongst his Opera geometrica Its communication by Castelli to Galileo inwith a proposal that Torricelli should reside with him, led to Torricelli traveling to Florencewhere he met Galileo, and acted as his amanuensis during the three remaining months of his life.
Torricelli’s chief invention was the mercury barometer. Pump makers of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany attempted to raise water to a height of 12 meters or more, but found that 10 meters was the limit with a suction pump as recounted in Galileo’s Dialogue. Torricelli employed mercurythirteen times more dense than water.
In he created a tube approximately one meter long, sealed at the top, filled it with mercury, and set it vertically into a basin of mercury.
As we now know, the column’s height fluctuated with changing atmospheric pressure ; this was the first barometer.
The discovery of the principle of the barometer has perpetuated his fame “Torricellian tube”, “Torricellian vacuum”. The torra unit of pressure used in vacuum measurements, is named after him. Torricelli also discovered Torricelli’s lawregarding the speed of a fluid flowing out of an opening, which was brometro shown to be a particular case of Bernoulli’s principle. So if the container is an upright cylinder with a small leak at the bottom and y is the depth of the water at time t, then.
Torricelli studied projectiles and how they traveled through the air. This envelope became known as the parabola di sicurezza safety parabola. Torricelli gave the first scientific description of the cause of wind:. Torricelli is also famous for the discovery of the Torricelli’s trumpet also barmoetro perhaps more often – known as Gabriel’s Horn whose surface area is infinitebut whose volume is finite. This was seen as an “incredible” paradox by many at the time, including Torricelli himself, and prompted a fierce controversy about the nature of infinity, also involving the philosopher Hobbes.
It is supposed by some to have led to the idea of a “completed infinity”.
Torricelli tried several alternative proofs, attempting to prove that its surface area was also finite – all of which failed. Torricelli was also a pioneer in the area of infinite series. Torricelli developed further the method of indivisibles of Cavalieri. Many 17th century mathematicians learned of the torrielli through Torricelli whose writing was more accessible than Cavalieri’s. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Italian physicist, inventor of the barometer.
Evangelista Torricelli by Lorenzo Lippi circa RomePapal States. FlorenceGrand Duchy of Tuscany.
Magill 13 September The 17th and 18th Centuries: Dictionary of World Biography. Turnbull world wide web server. Opere di Galileo Galilei. An Ocean of Air: A Natural History of the Atmosphere. Tales Behind the Science. George Routledge and Sons. Torricelli died inRetrieved 2 June The American Mathematical Monthly.
Sapienza University of Rome. Wikimedia Commons has media related to Evangelista Torricelli.