Los polioles, también llamados polialcoholes o alcoholes química se parece en parte a la de los azúcares y en parte a la de los alcoholes. Sugar alcohols are organic compounds, typically derived from sugars, that comprise a class of polyols. They are white, water-soluble solids that can occur. El Xylitol es un compuesto perteneciente a un grupo denominado “alcoholes de azúcar” o polioles. Se encuentra en la naturaleza en muchas.
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Sugar alcohols also called polyhydric alcoholspolyalcoholsalditols or glycitols are organic compoundstypically derived from sugarsthat comprise a class of polyols. They are white, water-soluble solids that can occur naturally or be produced industrially from sugars.
They are used widely in the food industry as thickeners and sweeteners. In commercial foodstuffs, sugar alcohols are commonly used in place of table sugar sucroseoften in combination with high intensity artificial sweeteners to counter the low sweetness. Xylitol and sorbitol are popular sugar alcohols in commercial foods. The sugar alcohols differ in chain length. Most have five- or six-carbon chains, because they are derived from pentoses five-carbon sugars and hexoses six-carbon sugarsrespectively.
They have one OH group attached to each carbon. They are further differentiated by the relative orientation stereochemistry of these OH groups.
Unlike sugars, which tend to exist as rings, sugar alcohols do not. Oo can however be dehydrated to give cyclic ethers, e. Sugar alcohols occur naturally and at one time, mannitol was obtained from natural sources.
Today, they are often obtained by hydrogenation of sugars, using Raney nickel catalysts. More than a million tons of sorbitol are produced in this way every year.
Xylitol and lactitol are obtained similarly. Erythritol on the other hand is obtained by fermentation of glucose and sucrose. Sugar alcohols do not contribute to tooth decay. Alcojoles have shown xylitol to be a deterrent to tooth decay. Food containing xylitol increased bone polioes in rat studies. These results have generated interest in the sugar alcohol that would examine if it could be a human treatment for osteoporosis.
Polioles – Polioles
Consumption of sugar alcohols affects blood sugar levels, although much less than does polioes comparing by glycemic index. Both disaccharides and monosaccharides can form sugar alcohols; however, sugar alcohols derived from disaccharides e. As a group, sugar alcohols are not as sweet as sucroseand they have slightly less food energy than sucrose. Their flavor is like sucrose, and they can be used to mask the unpleasant aftertastes of some high intensity sweeteners.
Sugar alcohols poluoles not metabolized by oral bacteria, and so they do not contribute to tooth decay. In addition to their sweetness, some sugar alcohols can produce a noticeable alcoholess sensation in the mouth when highly concentrated, for instance in sugar-free hard candy or chewing gum. This happens, for example, with the crystalline phase of sorbitolerythritolxylitolmannitollactitol and maltitol.
The cooling sensation is due to the dissolution of the sugar alcohol poliolse an endothermic heat-absorbing reaction one with a strong heat of solution. Sugar alcohols are usually incompletely absorbed into the blood stream from the small intestine which generally results in a smaller change in blood glucose than “regular” sugar sucrose. Azucates property makes them popular sweeteners among diabetics and people on low-carbohydrate diets. However, like many other incompletely digestible substances, overconsumption of sugar alcohols can lead to bloatingdiarrhea and flatulence because they are not fully absorbed in the small intestine.
Some individuals experience such symptoms even in a single-serving quantity. With continued use, most people develop a degree of tolerance to sugar alcohols and no longer experience these symptoms. As an exception, erythritol is actually absorbed in the small intestine and excreted unchanged through urine, so it contributes no calories even though it is rather sweet. The table above presents the relative sweetness and food energy of the most widely used sugar alcohols.
Despite the variance in food energy content of sugar alcohols, EU labeling requirements assign a blanket value of 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Ethylene glycol 2-carbon Glycerol 3-carbon Erythritol 4-carbon Threitol 4-carbon Azhcares 5-carbon Xylitol 5-carbon Ribitol 5-carbon Mannitol 6-carbon Sorbitol 6-carbon Galactitol polooles Fucitol 6-carbon Iditol 6-carbon Inositol 6-carbon; a cyclic sugar alcohol Volemitol 7-carbon Isomalt carbon Maltitol carbon Lactitol carbon Maltotriitol carbon Maltotetraitol carbon Polyglycitol.
Ullmann’s Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. A Practical Handbookp. The Everything Diabetes Bookp. Yale New Haven Health. Retrieved January 6, Retrieved 6 January Journal of thermal analysis. Ethylene glycol [ citation needed ]. Mannitol Sorbitol Galactitol Iditol. Retrieved from ” https: Sugar alcohols Sugar substitutes.
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